SMOOTH & TART
The pleasant, refreshing experience of biting into a juicy
apple or cherry is partly caused by Malic acid. Discover Malic
acid's mellow, smooth, persistent sourness which allows it
to be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity
sweeteners, flavours, and seasonings to create unique taste
experiences in foods, beverages and confections.
Malic acid's synergism with certain food ingredients and flavours
makes it a versatile and flexible acid of choice to create
new taste sensations and to add new twists to existing products.
To see the percentage of naturally occurring Malic Acid in
bowl click here.
Malic acid is formed in metabolic cycles in the cells of
plants and animals, including humans. For instance, in both
the KREB and glyoxalate cycles it provides the cells with
energy and carbon skeletons for the formation of amino acids.
A relatively large amount of Malic acid is produced and broken
down in the human body every day.
AN IMPORTANT FOOD ACID WITH UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES
Malic acid is the principal acid contained in apples and many
other fruits and vegetables.
Malic acid has:
- a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness,
- flavour enhancement and blending abilities,
- a high solubility rate,
- lower hygroscopicity than Citric or Tartaric acids,
- a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation
into molten confections,
- and good chelating properties with metal ions.
- economical acidulant blends with other acids,
- more soluble calcium salts than Citric acid, and
- effective buffering mixtures.
FLAVOUR ENHANCEMENT AND BLENDING ABILITIES
Bartek Malic acid aids the formulator, because it:
- intensifies the impact of many flavours in foods or beverages,
often reducing the amount of flavour needed,
- blends distinct flavours resulting in a well-rounded flavour
- improves aftertaste by extending the impact of some flavours,
- increases burst and aromaticity of some flavor notes in certain beverage applications,
- boosts savory flavours like cheese and hot peppers in snack
food coatings, and
- deepens and broadens the flavour profile of many products,
resulting in a richer, more natural flavour experience.
Adding Malic acid improves economies, especially
in artificially sweetened products. Flavours are enhanced, allowing
less flavour to be used, and the overall flavour profile is
broader and more natural.
Malic acid is a preferred acidulant for still beverages (fruit
drinks, nectars, iced-teas, sports drinks, calcium fortified
juices), because it enhances fruit flavours, improves pH stability,
and masks the aftertaste of some salts.
In iced tea, sports drink or fruit soup dry mixes, Malic acid
is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate and flavour
enhancement qualities. Since Malic acid provides more sourness
than Citric acid, less acidulant is required and unit weight
can be reduced.
Low Calorie Beverages
In beverages containing intense sweeteners, less Malic acid
than Citric is required to achieve the desired sourness and
flavour at a higher pH. Malic acid's extended sourness masks
sweetener aftertaste (see Taste
Retention Chart) and its blending and fixative
abilities give a balanced taste. In a study with 14-30 year
olds, aspartame sweetened low-calorie soft drinks acidified
with Malic acid were preferred over those with Citric acid.
To see our Taste Retention Chart please click here.
Ciders and Wines
For "alcoholic" apple ciders, Malic acid is added
to maintain a consistent "sharp" taste. In wines,
malolactic fermentation improves the flavour profile of the
Acidified "Dairy" Products
- Whey-based protein beverages acidified with Malic acid have
enhanced fruit flavour and less noticeable whey flavour.
- Fruit flavoured milk drinks made with fruit juice and acidified
with Malic acid have improved flavour and palatability.
- Coagulated soy-milk acidified with Malic acid produces a
Calcium Supplements and Calcium-fortified Beverages
In liquid calcium supplements, Malic acid adds a tart and
fruity flavour while controlling the pH. In calcium-fortified
beverages, using Malic acid in place of Citric acid prevents
turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
Malic acid gives an appealing tartness to hard, soft, tabletted
and sugarless candies as well as chewing gum. Blending multiple
acids creates unique tasting confections. For example, to
prolong the sourness in candy or chewing gum, Citric acid
is used for an initial sour boost, Malic acid for a lingering
sourness, and Fumaric acid to sustain the tartness even longer.
Malic acid's high solubility allows it be blended with cooled
confections. Adding acids at the end of the candy making process
minimizes sugar inversion.
Malic acid boosts sourness intensity and enhances fruit flavours.
It has a lower melting point than other food acids - this
means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy
without added water - shelf life is increased since the initial
moisture level in the hard candy is lower.
In agar, gelatin or pectin-based candies such as jellies and
gummies, Malic acid is used to achieve a natural fruit flavour
profile, proper gelling and good product clarity.
Malic acid is preferred over Citric acid in this application
because it enhances flavour, especially fruit flavours, and
boosts sweetness. Blending the sorbitol solution during the
heating process is made easier by adding Malic acid.
Organic food acids combined with saccharin improve saliva
stimulation in chewing gum. Malic acid is preferred due to
its flavour enhancement properties. Using blends of acids
with different partition coefficients results in a sequential
release of acid - this creates prolonged juiciness and flavour
FRUIT PREPARATIONS AND PRESERVES
Malic acid enhances fruit flavours and creates a more natural
flavour profile in jams, jellies, and fruit preparations.
Malic acid stabilizes pH to control pectin gel texture due
to its strong buffering capacity at the pHs used for pectin
gels. Fruit preparations are acidified with Malic acid so
that the fruit flavour stays strong, even when the fruit preparation
is used in dairy products, frozen desserts or baked goods.
- Fruit preparations for frozen desserts show enhanced fruit
flavour when Malic acid is included.
- Malic acid is an economical fruit flavour enhancer in sherbets
and water ices.
- In gelled desserts, Malic acid enhances fruit flavours and
helps stabilize pH to control gel texture.
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars,
pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced
fruit flavour when the fruit filling includes Malic acid.
Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic acid's
MEDICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS
In throat lozenges, cough syrups, and effervescent powdered
preparations, Malic acid enhances fruit flavour and can diminish
the flavour impact of active components. As Malic acid stimulates
saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations
and mouthwashes. Germicidal compounds are used in combination
with Malic acid in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste.
Acid-Based Facial Products
Malic acid, an alpha hydroxy fruit acid, can be used in skin
care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.