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SOL-U-CAL
A Soluble Calcium Source with 19% Calcium

SOL-U-CAL is a proprietary form of Calcium Fumarate developed by Bartek Ingredients, Inc. Bartek Ingredients Inc. uses a proprietary process to enhance SOL-U-CAL's functional properties. SOL-U-CAL is used in Calcium fortified products as well as to improve texture in fruits and vegetables. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies Calcium Fumarate as a dietary and nutritional additive.

Benefits of SOL-U-CAL

Highest Calcium Level of the Soluble Calcium Salts
At 19% Calcium, SOL-U-CAL has a much higher level of Calcium than other soluble Calcium salts, as shown in the table below. The amount required to achieve a given Calcium level is much lower as a result.



Stronger Fruit Flavour
Calcium fortified fruit-based products made with SOL-U-CAL have a stronger fruit flavour than those fortified with other soluble Calcium salts. This is due in part to the lower level needed to achieve the same Calcium loading.

More Economical Calcium Source than Most Other Soluble Calcium Salts
A consequence of SOL-U-CAL's high Calcium level is that it is a more economical source of Calcium than most other soluble Calcium salts. Cost savings of $0.01 to $0.05 per gallon of Calcium fortified juice beverages are possible, depending on the level of Calcium fortification.

Rapid Dissolution
SOL-U-CAL dissolves faster than other commercially available forms of Calcium Fumarate. A proprietary process developed by Bartek Ingredients Inc. is used during the manufacture of SOL-U-CAL to enhance its rate of dissolution in water. The time required for dissolution in Calcium fortified juice beverages is lower than that for other soluble Calcium salts in part because of its lower level of use.

Transparent Solutions
SOL-U-CAL yields transparent solutions and therefore can be used as a Calcium source in clear beverages.

Raises pH less than Calcium Lactate or Calcium Gluconate
SOL-U-CAL raises the pH of a Calcium fortified juice beverage less than Calcium Lactate or Calcium Gluconate while providing the same level of Calcium. This is due to its lower level of use as well as its lower dissociation constant. The graph below shows its pH increase compared to that of Calcium Lactate in three different juice beverages.



Adequate Solubility for Calcium Fortified Food & Beverage Products
SOL-U-CAL has more than enough solubility for most Calcium fortification applications. At neutral pH and 20C, its solubility is 1.22% w/w. Solubility increases slightly with temperature (1.56% w/w at 30C). As shown in the following table, the level of SOL-U-CAL required to achieve 10-30% of the U.S. Calcium RDI in many products is well below its solubility limit.



At pH 2.5 to 4.5, the solubility of SOL-U-CAL increases significantly, since fumarate ion is converted to acid fumarate ion at these pHs and Calcium Acid Fumarate has 3.5 times the solubility as Calcium Fumarate. Therefore, if acids are used in the application, SOL-U-CAL should be dissolved in aqueous solutions after the acid(s) has been added. Mixing time is reduced by this order of addition because the solubility of SOL-U-CAL is higher at lower pHs.

Applications

Beverage Applications

SOL-U-CAL functions well when used as a Calcium source in ready-to-drink beverages, beverage concentrates, beverage dry mixes, and in water. It is used either alone or, in the case of Calcium fortified orange juice, in combination with other Calcium salts.

The Calcium salts of Tartaric, Phosphoric, and Citric Acids have very low solubilities and may precipitate after several weeks of storage in Calcium fortified beverage systems, depending on the pH, the level of Calcium, and the anions present. Stable beverage systems with no precipitation have been prepared with Bartek Calcium Fumarate in combination with Citric Acid.

Texture Improvement in Fruits and Vegetables

SOL-U-CAL improves texture in processed fruits and vegetables when used in conjunction with a pectin esterase enzyme. It is preferred in this application due to its rapid dissolution, neutral taste impact, and high Calcium level.

Health Bar Applications

SOL-U-CAL can be used as a Calcium source in health bars. It does not degrade texture or flavor due to its high solubility and neutral taste impact.

Fruit Flavored Yogurt Applications

Yogurt with fruit preparation normally contains much less Calcium than plain yogurt. For this reason, Calcium salts are added to bring the Calcium levels closer to the levels found in plain yogurt. In this application, SOL-U-CAL is typically dissolved in the fruit preparation.

Cottage Cheese Applications

The level of Calcium in cottage cheese is about half that of milk, due to the acidic conditions under which it is made. Calcium salts are added to make up for the Calcium lost in the acid whey. SOL-U-CAL can be dissolved in the cottage cheese dressing prior to mixing with the curd.

Bartek Ingredients Inc. provides detailed recommendations for the application of SOL-U-CAL after a review of the finished product requirements and process conditions.

Safety and Regulatory Approval

SOL-U-CAL is a food grade nutritional additive and is made by combining Bartek Fumaric Acid with a Calcium source under controlled conditions.

Fumaric acid is an organic acid widely found in nature. In humans and other mammals, Fumaric acid is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle for organic acid biosynthesis (the Krebs cycle). Natural and synthetically produced Fumaric Acids have the same molecular structure.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration classifies Calcium Fumarate as a dietary and nutritional additive (21CFR172.350). SOL-U-CAL meets the purity requirement of this regulation.

Background Information on Calcium Fortification

Calcium is an essential nutrient for human nutrition. It is necessary for healthy bones and teeth. The Institute of Medicine, in their 1997 report, recommended the consumption of 1,000 - 1,300 mg. of Calcium per day for most age groups. The age groups with the highest recommended Calcium intakes were 9-18 (1,300 mg. per day) and over 50 (1,200 mg. per day). Children and teenagers need Calcium for bone mineralization and skeletal development. People over 50 need to consume high levels of Calcium in order to counteract Calcium loss from the skeleton. Women over 50 tend to lose Calcium at a greater rate than men.

Calcium consumption among children and teenagers has fallen below the recommended daily intakes. The primary reason for this is that children are consuming less milk and dairy products than they used to. As shown in the figure below, girls consume less calcium than boys - this is related in part to concerns about body weight and the perception that dairy products are fattening.


Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development have issued statements about low Calcium intake and have recommended steps to improve this situation. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians talk with children about sources of dietary Calcium such as Calcium fortified juices and other Calcium fortified foods. Limited studies of bioavailability in Calcium fortified apple juice and orange juice suggest that the Calcium bioavailability in these products is at least comparable to that of milk.

Bioavailability

The bioavailability of Calcium is influenced by many dietary factors. The composition of the food or beverage being consumed with the Calcium is an important factor. Many studies have shown that nondairy Calcium salts are about equal in Calcium absorption.

Two animal studies indicated that Calcium Fumarate has a bioavailability equivalent to that of other Calcium salts (Szulc, B., Wojdak, H., & Kowalski, W.J. 2001. Comparison of Bioavailability of Calcium Salts in Rabbits. Acta Pharm. 51: 211-217; Weaver C.M. et al. 2002. Absorption of Calcium Fumarate Salts is Equivalent to Other Calcium Salts when Measured in the Rat Model. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50(17): 4974-4975).

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